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CARMEL SAPPHIRES:
Corundum recoveries by Shefa Yamim: Shefa Yamim has recovered corundum minerals since its establishment (1999), throughout its exploration and prospecting areas. The corundum minerals, as above mentioned, typically occur as brown with inclusions. In addition, the gem varieties of corundum (same chemistry- Al2O3, different appearance) ruby (red) and sapphire (variegated- including green, blue, pink, brown)- are included in the Company's target minerals and are also recovered by Shefa Yamim both in Primary and Secondary Source areas.
In accordance with the geological model developed by Shefa Yamim, corundum is included in the HIM Suite (Heavy Industrial Mineral suite) of Shefa Yamim together with garnet, zircon, rutile, ilmenite. Ruby and sapphire are included in the DMC Suite- (D) diamond, (M) Moissanite and gem varieties of corundum (C) the ruby and the sapphire.


The unique corundum of Shefa Yamim - "Carmel sapphire":

Since 2014, unique corundum minerals recovered in the Mid Reach of the Kishon River, both in drillings and in bulk samples. These corundum minerals are dark grey to black full with inclusions- of mostly titanium, zircon, aluminum oxides and encrusted by volcanic glass (Griffin et al., 2015). At first these were named non-gem corundum (NGC). However, polishing this titanium-rich minerals crust revealed that they have a potential gemstones value. Therefore, since January 2016, Shefa Yamim's titanium-rich corundums recovered only in the Mid Reach of the Kishon River so far, were designated as "Carmel Sapphire".
The Carmel Sapphires contain inclusions of a remarkable mineral association, crystallizing from trapped melts at the time of the explosive eruptions.
 
Tracking the inclusions that are invisible to the naked eye is done by state of the art technologies at Macquarie University, Australia (see picture below). The inclusions include the Tistarite (Ti2O3) mineral, one of the Solar system’s oldest solids (reached the Earth by meteoritic chondrites), the TAZ compound of Titanium-Zirconium-Aluminium (Ti4Al2ZrO11) and volcanic glass (amorphous, uncrystallized, product of rapidly cooling magma). It should be noted, that the first non-outer space natural tistarite ever, was recovered by Shefa Yamim in inclusions within Carmel Sapphires in the Mid Reach of the Kishon River. Polished varieties of the Carmel Sapphire highlight their inclusions and in many cases the resulted colour is different from the original specimen.

"… Therefore, we have suggested that the titanium-rich corundum should rather be designated Carmel Sapphire, since it is unlike gem-corundum known from elsewhere in the world". (Prof. Griffin, January 21, 2016)


Shefa Yamim's "Carmel Sapphire" closely imaged by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) using the EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) technique. Image processed by Professor William L. Griffin and his research team at Macquarie University, Australia.  

Carmel Sapphire in the Mid Reach of the Kishon River:
The Mid Reach of the Kishon River is currently prioritized by Shefa Yamim as a leading exploration target- towards definition of a mineral resource in this segment of the catchment.
Intensive exploration throughout the past 3 years includes programs of closely spaced drillings and trenching (bulk sampling) from which existing samples and future samples are sampled in the range of 500 tons each.

On December 14th, 2015 Shefa Yamim has reported the Exploration Results of a 400 tons bulk sample (sample 1124) that recovered Carmel Sapphires of some 248 carats per hundred ton (cpht) grade with two substantial +10.8 carat stones found: a 23.4 carat stone, which is the largest placer stone size to date, followed by a 12.22 carat stone.

These significant Carmel Sapphire findings play a major role and lead the company together with other important target minerals (e.g. diamond moissanite, sapphire, ruby, garnet, zircon, rutile and ilmenite) towards estimating the resource potential of the multi-commodity Kishon Mid-Reach alluvial placer.

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William L. Griffin, Sarah E.M. Gain, David T. Adams, Vered Toledo, Norman J. Pearson and Suzanne Y. O’Reilly





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